Water and Environment

Interference of Water and Environmental Variables on Lead Chloride Toxicity in Artemia salina Model

Mohammad SN1, Pinto AAG1, Nagai MYO1, Coimbra EM1,
Suffredini IB
1, Peres GB1, Bernardi MM1, Bonamin LV1 *

1] Graduate Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology – Universidade Paulista (UNIP). Rua Dr. Bacelar, 1212 – 4th floor. ZIP-CODE: 04026-002 – São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Authors’ e-mails: Mohammad SN (suhamnowrooz@gmail.com); Pinto AAG (andreia.agpe@hotmail.com), Nagai MYO (mynagai@yahoo.com.br), Coimbra EN (ednarcoimbra@hotmail.com), Suffredini IB (ivana.suffredini@docente.unip.br), Peres GB (giovani.peres@docente.unip.br), Bernardi MM (maria.bernardi@docente.unip.br), Bonamin LV * (leoni.bonamin@docente.unip.br;  leonibonamin@gmail.com).

Keywords: ecotoxicology, microcrustacean, circalunar, water agitation, succussion

• Received: October 30, 2021
• Revised: December 15 2021
• Accepted: February 21, 2021
• Published: April 25, 2022




An experimental model was established based on the premise that environmental and water conditions can influence the effects of toxic agents on living beings. To verify if circalunar phases and water agitation can modify the toxicity of lead chloride on in vitro Artemia salina, cysts were exposed to seawater containing 0.04% of lead chloride (equal to EC10 or 10% effective concentration) in 96-well culture plates. Thirty-six experimental repetitions were performed in four series to observe the possible effects of adding stirred water, the so-called succussed water, and of moon phases on toxicity. The cysts were recorded after 48 hours using a digital microscope (1000x magnification) to identify hatching percentage, nauplii viability and mobility. The exposure of cysts to lead chloride (PbCl2) led to an increase in the hatching rate, and this was more evident during the full moon. Addition of succussed water into the seawater medium reduced this effect to baseline levels. An increase in mobility was seen in nauplii born from exposed cysts during the full moon, but this effect was not affected by treatment with succussed water. The organization of nano and microbubbles generated after the succussion of water is supposed to be related to this protective effect. In conclusion, environmental factors, such as the circalunar cycle and products of water agitation, can modulate the adaptive control of hatching in Artemia salina exposed to lead chloride at EC10.

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