Multidisciplinary Research Journal

Seventh Annual Conference on the Physics, Chemistry and Biology of Water

October 18th - 21st, 2012

West Dover, Vermont

doi: 10.14294.WATER.2013.S

Another great group in 2012
Another great group in 2012

To download a data map of the topics covered at WaterCon 2012, please click here.

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Agenda 2012

Thursday October 18th

Session TH-I Topic: General Considerations
Chairs: Bernhard Pollner, Nigel Dyer 

Friday October 19th
Session F-I Topic: Electromagnetic Signals Chairs: Rene Olivier, Roumiana Tsenkova

Session F-II Topic: Beyond the Usual? Chairs: Dina Pines, Giuseppe Vitiello

Saturday October 20th
Session Sat-ITopic: Exotic PhenomenaChairs: Jacques Huyghe, Wei-Chun Chin

Session Sat-II Topic: Droplets and Bubbles Chairs: Elmar Fuchs, David Anick

Sunday October 21st
Session Sun-I Topic: Water & Biology Chairs: Paul Matsudaira, James Morré

Speaker Abstracts

Alphabetical by Author
Authors retain copyrights to all research and presentations.

Proposed Microlattice Structures for High/Very High Density Amorphous Ice and the Exclusion Zone

Anick DJ1
1Harvard Medical School
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Three “amorphous” ices have been known for many years on which hundreds of experiments have been done: high density amorphous ice (HDA), low density amorphous ice (LDA), and very high density amorphous ice (VHDA). It is unknown whether they are glasses with no long range order beyond a few molecules versus consisting of microlattice, i.e. a mosaic of microdomains with various sizes and orientations, of an unknown phase of water. HDA and VHDA are unusual in that their oxygen coordination numbers are 5 and 6 respectively, whereas LDA has coordination 4 like familiar tetrahedral ices. This talk introduces hexagonal bilayer water (HBW) and pleated sheet water (PSW), two new phases of water that match extremely well the experimental properties of HDA and VHDA respectively. The hypothesis is explored that these are the microlattice structures for HDA and VHDA. Although HDA and VHDA crystallize to Ice-Ic if warmed at ambient pressure above 150 K, HBW and PSW are predicted to have high entropy compared to other water phases so they might also occur as relatively long-lived nanoscale components in liquid water at ambient temperature. If the Exclusion Zone were comprised of a combination of HBW and PSW, this might explain its unusual properties.

Solute-Exclusion Zones: New Driving Force for Microfluidics

Chen C-S1, Farr E2, Anaya JM2, Y-T Chen EY-T1 and Chin W-C1
1Bioengineering, University of California, Merced, CA, USA
2School of Nature Sciences, University of California, Merced, CA, USA

Microfluidic technologies provide multi-faceted research tools and medical app-lications. However, lack of embedded power sources has seriously limited the independency and portability of micro-fluidics. Here we integrated the exclusion zone (EZ) into lab-on-chip systems.  

Without external power sources, with EZ as driving power, microparticles can be guided hundreds of micrometers from hydrophilic polymer surfaces and transported effectively through laminar interfaces cross flow streams. Here we demonstrated the feasibility of samples mixing, size-dependant separating, and specimen guiding in microfluidics. With its simplicity and low-cost, EZ-zone-based designs can confer a broad range of utilities for point-of-care diagnosis or stand-alone environmental monitoring microsystems. 

Emergence of Quantum Coherence in Liquid Water and Aqueous Systems

Del Giudice E
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Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) describes liquid water as a two-phase system: a noncoherent phase made up of an ensemble of independent molecules forming a dense gas and a coherent phase made up of large aggregates ( some millions) of molecules oscillating in unison between two configurations of their electron clouds in tune with a self-trapped electromagnetic field. The coherent phase of water , through its electromagnetic field , is able to interact with the environment; in particular, because of coherence, it is able to detect external electromagnetic potentials according to the Bohm-Aharonov effect. Consequently the physical properties of the coherent phase of water are bound to change when the potentials produced by physical events occurring also far away come in contact with the liquid. In this way the so far mysterious outcomes of the experiments performed by Piccardi and the more recent surprising results of Voeikov could find a rationale. 

Does Dead Wood Remember Water?

Derome D11

Building Science and Technology Laboratory, Empa, SwitzerlandWood interacts with moisture in the vapor and in the liquid states. We present a series of observations on wood/water interactions and link the observed behavior to what occurs in the living tree.Adsorption originates at the molecular scale from the interactions between the atoms of the solid skeleton and the molecules of the fluid. When the size of the pores is in the order of the range of the molecular interactions (micro or nanoporous materials), a mechanical pressure arises orthogonal to the porous interface leading to sorption induced deformations (swelling). We observe experimentally different microstructures of wood using synchrotron X-ray microtomography, and use this hierarchical material to develop our understanding of shape memory effects upon moistening.Liquid movement in wood, and in the tree, is not yet understood. In particular, little is known about the flow and water exchange between the xylem and the phloem at the microscale, where features like pits in the xylem and plasmodesmata in the phloem control the flow. We use neutron imaging to acquire the spatial distribution of water in wood during wetting (in liquid or vapor phase), redistribution, drying, with or without the presence of temperature gradients.

Water Pockets in Lipid Membranes Evaluated by FTIR Spectroscopy

Disalvo EA1, Bouchet AM1 and Frias MA1
1Laboratory of Biointerfaces and Biomimetic Systems, CITSE (UNSE- CONICET), San-tiago del Estero, Argentina.
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FTIR spectroscopy is a valuable tool to obtain molecular information about changes in water states produced at the phase transition temperature of lipid membranes. In carefully design experiments it is possible to evaluate the position and width of the 3200-3600 nm bands in parallel to the changes produced in the CH2 region corresponding to the lateral interactions of the lipid acyl chains. When acyl chains melt, the pattern of water in solid lipids disappears. Moreover, when the fully hydrated lipids cross the phase transition the band in the gel state is shifted to higher frequencies indicating a decrease in water bonding. An increase in the hydrogen bonded water populations appears when CH2 groups are surrounded by water domains or probably water domains are created around CH2 groups. With this strategy, we present a rational description of the water pockets creation and the influence of the adjacent lipid wall formed at the phase transition on water structure for different types of lipids. Changes in the type of water populations are concomitant with the shift of methylene vibrational mode frequencies to higher values. The increase in isolated populations of methylene residues is congruent with the formation of highly ordered water cluster bonded by hydrogen bonds. This is consistent with the formation of water pockets in nano environments that accumulates free energy. The low entropy of these water arrangements, compensated by the disorder in the acyl chains, can be the thermodynamic driving force for peptide insertion into membranes. 

Electromagnetic Regulation of Cell density in Paramecium Caudatum

Fels D1
1University of Basel

In order to approach the electromagnetic communication among cells one has to isolate electromagnetic from chemical cell signals. This is best achieved with the use of glass-barriers separating cell populations from each other. The handiness and possibilities of this barrier-method is described. The talk then focuses on research performed with the aquatic unicellular ciliate Paramecium caudatum. In summary, very significant effects on cell division rates and energy uptake were observed, all of which in dependence to separating material and cell numbers in cell populations on the other side of the barrier. Further studies strongly support the hypothesis that the electromagnetic communication serves the regulation of population density. Additional analysis shows that the cells stand in relation with a not yet identified environmental factor, and that they display a relational pattern resembling relations in two-photon quantum experiments. Finally, technical interference with electromagnetic cell communication is discussed.

A New State of Water

Fuchs, E1
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When a high-voltage direct-current is applied to two beakers filled with water, a horizontal electrohydrodynamic (EHD) bridge forms between the two beakers. Recently the energy relaxation of the OH stretch vibration of HDO molecules contained in an HDO:D2O water bridge using femtosecond mid-infrared pump–probe spectroscopy was measured. We found that the vibrational lifetime is shorter (~630±50 fs) than for HDO molecules in bulk HDO:D2O (~740±40 fs). In contrast, the thermalization dynamics following the vibrational relaxation are much slower (~1.5±0.4 ps) than in bulk HDO:D2O (~250±90 fs). These differences in energy relaxation dynamics strongly indicate that the water bridge and bulk water differ on a molecular scale.

In another recent study, the transport and behavior of bacterial cells added to an EHD bridge set-up was investigated. It is shown that E. coli top 10 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) and bioluminescent E. coli YMC10 with a plasmid (pJE202) containing Vibrio fischeri genes can survive the exposure to an EHD liquid bridge set-up. Most E. coli YMC10 bacteria which passed the EHD bridge exhibited increased luminescent activity after 24 h. This can be explained by two likely mechanisms: nutrient limitation in the heavier inoculated vials and a ‘survival of the strongest’ mechanism. Finally, in a third recent paper, it is demonstrated that the bridging phenomenon is not water intrinsic, but can be reproduced with any polar liquid of sufficiently low DC conductivity and sufficiently high permittivity.

The Perspectives of Practical Application of the Electronic Transmission of Medical Drugs: The Role of Water

Germanov EP1, Voeikov VL2, Novikov SN3 and Surinov BP4
1DST-Foundation, Moscow, Russia
2Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Biology, Moscow, Russia
3Moscow State Institute of Electronic Technique, Moscow, Russia
4Medical Radiological Scientific Center, RF Ministry of Health, Obninsk, Russia
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About twenty years ago J. Benveniste et al. demonstrated that specific activities of biologically active substances (BAS) may be electronically transmitted through a standard audio amplifier (electronic oscillator) from a solution of a substance to a suspension of target cells resulting in a characteristic response of cells to the original substance. If a cell suspension was substituted by water the latter gained the biological activity of a substance after the process of “transmission” and could act upon target cells as if the actual substance was physically present in it. Benveniste suggested that solutions BASes emitted specific electromagnetic signals that could be digitally recorded using a computer with a sound card and that digitally recorded signals could be transmitted to any distant location [1]. This phenomenon has been reproduced in several independent laboratories using different variants of Benveniste’s technique. One of the most impressive discoveries is the made in this field by L. Montagnier at al. The ability of solutions of DNA with specific sequences to emit electromagnetic waves and to transmit information of these sequences to pure water was demonstrated. As a consequence this water serves the template for the synthesis of particular DNA sequence in PCR reaction [2]. Thus the principle of electronic transmission of biological activity of specific substances on aqueous systems is currently confirmed by quite a few of independent researches.

Three years ago Russian scientists M.M. Greenstein and M.M. Shraibman suggested DST-foundation to promote practical application of their technology of transfer of “informational copies” of medical drugs at a distance, to evaluate clinical efficiency of treatment of patients with water “charged” with specific drug information and to conduct scientific survey of this phenomenon. According to the procedure an active principle of a licensed medical drug (e.g. acetyl salicylic acid - Aspirin®) is placed on the surface of a blank Compact disc (CD) and is illuminated for several minutes with a laser pointer. The CD is inserted into the computer and “informational copy” of the drug is transmitted using E-mail to a distant addressee. The latter transfers it to a blank CD that is later used as a support for a glass of plain water. A patient to whom a particular drug is prescribed regularly drinks this water in addition to the drug or instead of it. Currently several dozens of “informational copies” of medical drugs are available [3], and clinical trials of their effects are conducted by 28 MDs from different countries. By now, the DST Foundation has fulfilled about 2,000 clinical observations. Almost all of them indicated of high clinical efficiency of application of this kind of treatment of a variety of pathological conditions with “informed” water specifically selected for particular cases. Integrally it may be stated that lack of health improvements or deterioration is observed in no more than 10% of those who used water charged with a prescribed drug “informational copy”.

Up to now only limited volume of scientific research of the phenomenon of electronic transmission of “informational copies” is performed. Still a diverse set of results indicating that “informed” CDs can really change properties of aqueous systems is already available. For example, it has been shown that treatment of mice in which immunodeficiency was induced by sub-lethal ionizing irradiation with physiological solution incubated on the CD “charged” with an “information copy” of the immunostimulating Russian drug Arbidol® resulted in a significant stimulation of immune activity comparable to that of the effect of the original drug. Combined action of the “informed” physiological solution and of the original Arbidol® resulted in the additive beneficial effect. Exposure of samples of water to CDs either by covering vessels with water with CDs, or putting CDs under them resulted in stable changes of some physical-chemical properties of water. For example it has been shown that some parameters of kinetics of water evaporation changed after exposure to a CD in comparison to those of unexposed water. These parameters also changed differently dependent upon exposure to CDs “informed” with different drug “copies”. Exposure of bicarbonate solutions to CDs also changed parameters of photon emission that accompany red/ox reactions going on in these solutions: these parameters differed in samples of water exposed to blank CDs or CDs “charged” with different “informational copies”. Probable mechanisms of these unexpected effects of “charged” CDs on fine physical chemical parameters of aqueous systems are discussed.

[1] Thomas Y, et al. In: Water and the Cell, Pollack G, et al. (eds.), pp. 325–340, Springer, 2006.
[2] Montagnier L, et al. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 306: 012007.


We, of the Harrison Studio, believe
As do others, although differently
That a series of events have come into being
Beginning in the time of Gilgamesh and before
Beginning with agriculture and the first genetic manipulation
Beginning with culture of animals and ongoing genetic manipulation
Beginning with globalization six thousand years ago with the Salt Route
A little later, the Silk Route
And later and later...
Especially with science informed by Descartes’ clock
And with modernity recreating the cultural landscape
And deconstructing nature thereby
From the Industrial Revolution to the present
Until all at once a new force has become apparent
We reframe a legal meaning ecologically
And name it the Force Majeure

We, of the Harrison Studio assert
As do others somewhat differently
That the Force Majeure, framed ecologically
Enacts in physical terms outcomes on the ground
Everything we have created in the global landscape
Bringing together the conditions that have accelerated global warming
Acting in concert
With the massive industrial processes of extraction, production and consumption
That have subtracted forests and depleted top soil
Profoundly reduced ocean productivity
While creating a vast chemical outpouring into the atmosphere
Onto the lands and within the waters That altogether comprise this Force Majeure

We, of the Harrison studio, are grateful
For the opportunity to join in this perilous conversation
Where the discourse in general
Is about time, money, power, justice, sex, politics
Personal well-being and survival
In many combinations and re-combinations
Attending somewhat to social injustice
And somewhat less to ecosystems’ injustice

This discourse points to human consciousness
Every day continuously attending to itself
With little attention paid to that which is not itself
Leading to intrinsic value switched for extrinsic value
With human creativity generating technologies
That appear not to like that which are not themselves
Sometimes becoming the reverse of their original intention
There is modest conversation drifting toward green
As industry and people think about doing well by doing good
Good being green roofs green cars
Green manufacturing processes
Green transformation of material
Green production of all kinds expanding green markets
Green in everyday life in the frame of sustainability

We, of the Harrison Studio, assert
As do others, as yet, not many
That in the face of multiple tipping points
Passed and near passed From CO2/methane to nitrates/nitrites
And more and more
All of these efforts and all of this work
Altruistic from the best of people
Greedy and mean spirited from the worst of people
Is better to be doing than not to be doing
But on balance, insufficient Endlessly insufficient

The Force Majeure, so obvious, even in the now
Is generating ocean rise
Forcing the ocean’s food chains to simplify
Compelling glaciers and snow pack to melt
Creating flood and drought at continental scale
Which is the outcome for rivers
As they flow down through Asia from the Tibetan Plateau
And true for many parts of the Americas
The outcomes for the Peninsula of Europe are unfortunate
The numbers have been crunched
Revealing the trajectory of drought predicted to proceed
From Portugal to the southern parts of Germany and beyond
Reducing 2.4 million square kilometers of farmland
That now feeds over 450 million Europeans by almost a third within 50 years
The population will grow the food supply will shrink
The waters will rise People will need to move upward
The rich will continue to do well
Not true for the middle class
And devastating for the poor

We, of the Harrison Studio conclude
That a counter force is available
But unless put in place well within the next fifty years
Civil society in many places will experience perturbation then collapse
Keeping company with the ecosystems experiencing perturbation and simplification
A counterforce that is comprised of understandings
Waiting to be internalized and then enacted
They are

First understanding
Nature’s economic system stores the energy that it does not immediately need mostly in carbon formations

Second understanding
Nature does not charge a profit as do culture’s economic systems

Third understanding
All natural systems are dissipative structures with individuals that form them living, reproducing then dying with indeterminacy as a norm

Fourth understanding
All natural systems have learned to nest within each other, and, within a context of symbiosis contribute to collective systems survival, sometimes with abundance

Fifth understanding
Human constructed artifacts particularly legal, political, economic as well as production and consumption systems seek constancy but are often in violation of the laws of conservation of energy pointing toward systems entropy

When the first four understandings are internalized and integrated into all parts of the fifth understating. A transformation can happen that will open pathways for human created systems to yield autonomy and accept limitations. An acceptance that will permit the formation of processes of nesting within nesting that will enable nature’s ways of invention and human ways of invention presently so oppositional to co-join.

The counterforce we envision will permit
A culturally generated acceleration of adaptation behaviors at great scale
Operating at a parallel rate to the climate forcing generated by human activity setting the stage for adapting strategies that will assist the migration of our own species
And those who are not ourselves
Who are co-equally endangered by the threat of mass extinction
Into zones of greater safety
Tuning to and over time in concert with the Force Majeure

Helen & Newton Harrison, the Harrison Studio.

How Cancer Cells and Magnetic Fields Led Us to Water

Héroux P1 and Li Y1
1InVitroPlus Research Laboratory Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
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As we examined the effects of ELF-MFs on cancer cells, we observed small reductions in cell footprint. We also found that after 6 days, all five of our cancer cell lines, specifically erythro- leukemia (K562, HEL 92.1.7), breast (MCF7), lung (NCI-H460) and colon cancer (COLO 320DM) lost chromosomes when exposed to fields in the range of 0.025 to 5 μT.

The cancer cells lines lost chromosomes from MF exposure with a mostly flat dose- response. Constant MF exposures for three weeks allowed a rising return to the baseline, unperturbed karyotypes. From this point, small MF increases or decreases were again capable of inducing karyotype contractions. Our data suggests that the karyotype contractions are caused by MF interference with mitochondria’s ATP synthase (ATPS), compensated by the action of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The effects of MFs are similar to those of the ATPS inhibitor oligomycin. They are amplified by metformin, an AMPK stimulator, and attenuated by resistin, an AMPK inhibitor. Over environmental MFs, karyotype contractions of various cancer cell lines show exceptionally wide and flat dose-responses, except for those of erythro-leukemia cells, which display a progressive rise from 0.025 to 0.4 μT. Our conclusion was that these effects of MFs are connected to an alteration in the structure of water, originally documented by Semikhina and Kiselev in Moscow in the 1980s, that impedes the flux of protons in ATPS channels. These results may be environmentally important, in view of the central roles played in human physiology by ATPS and AMPK, particularly in their links to diabetes, cancer and longevity.

Flow Patterns Induced by Hydrophylic Surfaces

Musa S1, Florea D1, Wyss H1 and Huyghe JM1
1Eindhoven University of Technology, Departments of Biomedical & Mechanical Engineering
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When a charged surface comes into contact with water it attracts counterion ions to neutralize. The Double Layer theory, which explain this mechanism, predicts that the charge surface induces order to few layers of water molecules next to it before the counterion ions layer is formed. The distance between the surface and the counterions layer, called the Debye length, is usually in the range of a few to tens of nanometers. Along this distance there an electric potential which decreases rapidly away from the surface, called the zeta potential.

Recent studies, however, have shown that suspensions are excluded to distances a few hundreds of micrometers away from hydrophilic surfaces [1]. The hydrophilic surfaces include those of various polymers, gels, biological tissues and solids such as zinc [2]. These studies revealed that there is an electric potential and viscosity gradient across the exclusion zone [2, 3?]. Also, a sudden change in the pH is observed at the edge of the exclusion zone [4], indicating the existence of the counterions layer at the end of the zone. All these observations suggest that the Debye length is being extended to hundreds of micrometers instead of tens of nanometers. The reason for the existence of this very large exclusion zone is not completely understood.

We report on peculiar flow patterns that accompany the formation of exclusion zone. We have observed that as the exclusion zone is developing water outside the zone flows towards the charged surfaces and bounces back when it reaches the surface. Although the flow decreases as a function of time, but it lasts for a number of hours. The energy driving this flow is not obvious as there is no pressure or electric field applied. Studying this flow can help in understanding the underlying physical principles of exclusion zone formation. Moreover, this flow has a potential for a wide range of applications where flow needs to be generated or controlled. To investigate these flow patterns we have conducted multi-particle tracking measurements using video microscopy. With this method we determined the flow velocities and water viscosity around the exclusion zone. We have also tracked the exclusion zone expansion using a microscope to determine to the speed with which it is developing. The results reveal the flow dynamics associated with the formation of the exclusion zone.

Origin of Life and Living Matter in Hot Mineral Water / Water in the Human Body is the Informational Bearer of Longevity

Ignatov I1
1Scientific Research Center of Medical Biophysics, Bulgaria
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Origin of Life and Living Matter in Hot Mineral Water
In 2009 Ignatov carried out experiments with “deionized”, mineral and sea water. The study was performed with model biophysical systems. The experiments were made with spectral analysis of liquids with the DNES method of Anton Antonov. Cactus juice was studied too. Mineral water with calcium and bicarbonate ions from different springs was examined. The spectra of hot mineral waters were closest in values to the biggest local maximums of the spectra of sap. Peaks were found at - 0.1112, -0.1187, -0.1262, -0.1287 and -0.1387 еV. Similar amplitudes in the spectrum of sea water were observed at -0.1362 еV. The evidence were indicated that the origin of life depends on the properties and structure of water and also on additional conditions. Mineral water, which interacts with calcium carbonate, is closest to these conditions and has left a trace in plants with its structure and entropy. Next in line with regard to quality is sea water (Ignatov, 2010). In Bulgaria, the water whose spectrum is closest to “water for the origin of life” is the water in the Rupite. In 2009 David Ward described fossilized stromatolites in the Glacier National Park in the USA. He was studying microbes in Yellowstone National Park in USA. The microbes are forming stromatolites in hot water similar to ancient organisms. In 2011 Marie-Laure Pons studied some of the oldest rocks on the planet and found the mineral serpentinite. It was previously thought that the first living creatures evolved in geysers. In September 2011 Tadashi Sugawara also brought us closer to the secret that life has originated in hot water. He has created proto cells, which are similar to bubbles. In 2009 Armen Mulkidjanian and Michael Galperin claimed that: “Тhe cytoplasm is rich in potassium, zinc, manganese, and phosphate ions, which are not widespread in marine environments, and have lower amounts of sodium ions than outside.” Oleg Mosin claimed that the water for the origin of life contains more deuterium molecules. Gerald Pollack and Jack Trevors have a hypothesis that the first cells on Earth have assembled in a hydrogel environment.
Water in the Human Body is an Informational Bearer of Longevity
Aging is associated with accumulation of errors in DNA replication. In 1963 Orgel demonstrated that the accumulation of errors in protein synthesis increases exponentially with age. When considering the question of longevity, one has to analyze which are the areas inhabited by the largest number of long- lived people and what are the reasons for that. In the process of development of each organism, water plays an important part – a fundamental matrix of life with a structure, isotope composition and ability to store and transmit information. Montagnier, Aissa, Del Giudice and co-authors researched the transfer of information from an aqueous solution of DNA molecules to water. From 1960 to 1965 the Russian scientist Berdishev studied centenarians in Russia. The research of Ignatov and Mosin considered the possibility of extending human life and reducing errors in transcription and replication of DNA in the synthesis of proteins depending on the water we drink. Analyses of water on the planet show that mountain water contains the smallest amounts of deuterium atoms in water molecules. In winter and early spring deuterium content is reduced. Studies were performed on a 1% solution of blood serum with the method of spectral analysis. Empirical blood serum samples were provided by Kalinka Naneva, Teteven Hospital, Bulgaria. The samples were divided into 2 groups of people between 50 and 70 years of age. The first group consisted of people in excellent health. The second group consisted of people in a critical state and suffering from malignant tumors. The research is carried out with statistical analysis. For the control group of healthy people the value of the spectrum of the largest local maximum is at -0.1387 eV. Water in the human body has a spectrum carrying information about life. The influence of the deuterium atoms in water on the human body is rather on the spectrum and thence on the vital functions (Ignatov, Mosin, 2012). The studies included more than 1500 persons and demonstrated that Christos Drossinakis emits biophysical fields that cause alterations in the water spectrum at -0.1387 eV. His mother is 100 years old. There is clinical evidence with people and laboratory mice with water with different quantities of deuterium atoms. Drossinakis has the tests in over 80 Institutes in whole world.

A Coherent Water State - Implications for Self-regulation and Restoration of Biological Structures and Functions

Johansson B
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Water is a dynamical non-linear open system with inherent capability to self-organize by influence from directed energies. An organized highly stable coherent structure of bulk liquid water forms on irradiation in the presence of low entropy sunlight at room temperature, characterized by persistent fractal long distance-attraction based on the self-organization ability. Reduction in thermal IR emission tunes a significant decline in surface temperature and aligns structural conformity. A distinctive configurative coherent aqueous state reveals a fractal scaling relationship in temperature fluctuations that maintains a self- organized structural adaptation irrespective of ambient temperature. In coherent water, the fractal constitution reveals a tentative high aesthetic preference in the human perception of naturalness, resembling the fractal nature of real snowflakes, structural architecture of biological structures and restoration of human physiological and cognitive functions as well as the fact that mimic geometry of natural objects is part of water ordering. Examples will be given how this coherent water state, denoted “functional water”, has considerably and broad implications improving human health. Functional water may be a significant factor in self-regulation of homeostasis. Being an important component in adaptive physiological homeostasis it is associated with fractal heart rhythm dynamics, a rapid parasympathetic restorative response from the heart, stabilizing normal blood pressure, stimulating humoral immunity and relieving the sensations of tinnitus.

Plasma-like Behaviour in Partially-Ionised Liquids: the Canal Transport Model of Phloem Translocation

Johnson B1
1Independent Researcher, Oxford, UK
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The behaviour of ionised gas plasma in space will be compared to the behaviour of partially-ionised liquid in the Floating Water Bridge. The distribution of electric charge will be shown to be important in both media. The comparison will suggest an explanation of some otherwise puzzling aspects of the Floating Water Bridge. Evidence for a similar charge distribution within the sieve tube elements of the phloem will be presented. Consideration of the effect of concentration gradients in the distributed charges leads to a new model of phloem translocation. The proposed Canal Transport Model can explain all the experimental evidence which contradicts the currently-favoured Münch osmotically-generated pressure flow model. We conclude that electromagnetic forces are an important factor in the metabolism of plants.

The Physicochemical Study of Highly Diluted Aqueous Solutions - The Effects of Ultra-low Concentrations and Electromagnetic Fields.

Konovalov AI1
1A. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry of Kazan Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, Kazan, Russia.
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Plenty of bioactive compounds show bio-effects in water solutions in two regions of concentrations: in usual and low (10-2-10-7M) and in ultra-low (10-12-10-20M). We have supposed that the reason of this phenomenon can be caused by different states of solutions in all over interval concentrations.

Therefore the study of water solutions of different nature solutes in wide region of concentrations was realized by complex physicochemical methods: dynamic light scattering, electrophoresis, electro-conductivity, surface tension-metry, pH – metry, polarimetry and TEM. Measurements were made in normal and in hypo-electro- magnetic (in permalloy box) conditions.

As the result, «the effect of ultra-low concentration and electromagnetic fields» was discovered. It consists in formation of nano-sized (up to 400 nm, ζ-potential up to -20mV) associates («nano-associates») in ultra-diluted water solutions and only by presence of external electromagnetic fields. The main part of such «nano-associates» is water. It was established that changes of «nano-associates» properties (size and ζ- potential) depending on solute concentration determine changes of physicochemical and biological properties of such solutions. There are substances either able or not able to show this effect.

Literature: Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics, 2009, Vol. 429, pp. 301–304; Doklady Physical Chemistry, 2009, Vol. 428, Part 2, pp. 196–200; 2009, Vol. 428, Part 2, pp. 201–205; 2010, Vol. 433, Part 2, pp. 142–146; 2011, Vol. 438, Part 1, pp. 98–102; 2011, Vol. 438, Part 2, pp. 109–113; 2011, Vol. 440, Part 2, pp. 201–204; 2011, Vol. 440, Part 1, pp. 157– 161; Mendeleev Commun. -2010. -No 20.- C. 148-150; Chemical Physics Letters. -2011.-V.511.- P.247-250.

Discovery of Macrocationic Crystalline H2O Cavitation Reentrant Jets and Their Role in Cavitation Zerto Point Energy, Fusion, and the Origin of Life

LeClair ML1
1CEO & Founder, NanoSpire, Inc., 25 Jesse Daniel Dr., Buxton, ME 04093 U.S.A.
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Macrocationic, crystallized cavitation reentrant jets were first observed during investigation of directed cavitation reentrant jet nano and micro-machining in water by the author in 2004 in Buxton, ME, on grants funded by the Maine Technology Institute. I again observed the same behavior in 2005 on work funded by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority as PI, with co-investigators Serge Lebid, EVP NanoSpire, Inc., Prof. Eric Eisenbraun of Albany Nanotech, and others. The extreme pressure and temperature of cavitation bubble collapse was compressing dissociated water H+ and OH- ions at the bubble interface into solid, faceted macrocationic crystals possessing an equilateral triangle crystalline subunit. Reentrant jet impacts formed pit cross-sections that were equilateral triangles, regular or oval-shaped hexagons, twinned crystals such as hourglasses, or hybrids of triangles and hexagons. The presentation will provide an overview of data and theories addressing the structure and dynamics of crystallized cavitation reentrant jets in coherently extracting zero point energy, triggering fusion and driving prebiotic chemistry.

The cavitation reentrant jet crystal has enormous positive electrostatic charge concentration and induces a negative charge on the surface of any nearby object. Electrostatic attraction then draws the positive crystal towards its negative induced charge on a nearby surface and imbeds the crystal with great force, imprinting a fossil image of the crystal’s facets in a wide variety of materials. The crystalline structure presents a concentrated number of protons on the surface giving it a very low pH. Bright red hexagon jet impact pits in green litmus and purple hexagon pits in orange litmus all indicated zero pH. The crystal is short-lived, typically persisting for a few microseconds in water, isolated by a super-cavitating water vapor column. The crystals can form linear or helical strands, with large bacteriophage-like icosahedral hexagonal heads and long narrow whip tails and can join head to toe, forming coils that can also supercoil, like DNA. A new diamond-like tetrahedral SP3 orbital structure is proposed, based on the crystal’s subunit equilateral triangular structure and dissociated water composition. The proposed molecular structure makes the crystal twice as strong as a diamond and up to 5.5 times denser than ordinary water. Sinusoidal reentrant jet buckling data used with the Euler equation indicates that the crystal is ten times stiffer than tungsten.

The cavitation reentrant jet water crystal plays a central role in coherently extracting zero point energy via the LeClair Effect, which triggered intense fusion, fission and transmutation in water during grant funded landmark experiments conducted August 24-25, 2009 in Buxton, ME by Mark L. LeClair and Serge Lebid of NanoSpire, Inc., that produced 2900 watts of hot water flow from 840 watts of electrical input. The transmuted material has been analyzed by SEM-EDAX, XPS and LA-ICP-MS, revealing that the transmuted material was generated by small scale supernova nucleosynthesis forming on the supersonic bow shock surrounding the crystal. Seventy-eight elements were detected, along with short-lived isotopes.

Crystallized cavitation reentrant jets are also the template for the origin of life. Observed large scale cavitation nucleosynthesis seriously challenges the paradigm that supernovas were the primary providers of the building blocks of life. I presented my theory to the NASA Astrobiology Institute in 2001 that cavitation reentrant jets generated by the underwater wake of asteroid and comet ejecta impacting into oceans and lakes during the primordial bombardment generated life. Cavitation was also generated from volcanic eruptions, lightning strikes, wave action and other natural phenomena. Helical cavitation reentrant jets act are exact geometric and molecular templates for the assembly of DNA, RNA and protein. The correct size protein, RNA and DNA reentrant jet templates only form within the same submicron size range where cavitation induces and accelerates unusual chemical reactions. The crystals can join head to toe, just as RNA and DNA 3’ and 5’ ends do, forming helical coils that can be relaxed, or twist and writhe into supercoils. The discovery of the crystal and its effects will have a dramatic impact on the physics, chemistry and biology of water.

Imaging Interfacial Water and It’s Dynamics at nm Resolution and In Real Time by Transmission Electron Microscopy

Matsudaira P1 and Mirsaidov U1
1Center for BioImaging Sciences, MechanoBiology Institute, Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore

We will discuss the following topics:

1. Fabrication of a 2.7x2.7mm liquid cell into which water and solutions of protein are introduced and sealed against the vacuum of a 120 or 200 kV TEM
2. The liquid cell windows are 10-50 nm thick and made of Si3N6, plasma-cleaned and rendered hydrophilic by glow discharge, the water fills a 100-200nm gap between the windows
3. Observations are recorded at 20 fps by a 2Kx2K CCD camera
4. Constant irradiation from a focused electron beam creates a void in the water column and dewetting of the window surfaces leading to the formation of thin (10-20nm thick) sheets and droplets (10-50 nm diameter) of water

5. The droplets translocate by a stick-slip mechanism involving a transition from a hemispherical to toroid-shaped droplet
6. Other dynamics are observed including droplet condensation, coalescence, and a highly dampened Brownian motion (9 logs slower than in bulk water) by 5 nm diameter gold or platinum particles
7. Protein complexes including the acrosomal process and microtubules can be imaged in room temperature liquid water
8. Rate of radiation damage in room temperature water is the same as in vitreous ice at liquid nitrogen temperature
9. The results

References: Mirsaidov UM, Zheng H, Bhattacharya D, Casana Y, Matsudaira P. 2012. Imaging protein structure in water at 2.7 nm resolution by TEM. Biophys J. 102:L15-7. 2.

Mirsaidov UM, Zheng H, Bhattacharya D, Casana Y, Matsudaira P. 2012. Direct observation of stick-slip movements of water nanodroplets induced by an electron beam. PNAS 2012 Apr 18 3.

Mirsaidov UM, Ohl, CD, Matsudaira P. 2012 Direct observation of nanometer-size void dynamics in ultra-thin water film. Soft Matter in press.

What an Electron-Hole Pair Upon UV Irradiation of TiO2 Can Do Besides the Red-ox Reactions

Mendive CB1,2, Hansmann D3, Curti M1, Bredow T3 and Bahnemann D2
1Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Dean Funes 3350, 7600 Mar del Plata, Argentina. Tel. 0054 223 475 6167
2Institut fuer Technische Chemie, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 3, D-30167 Hannover, Germany
3Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Universitaet Bonn, Wegelerstr. 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany
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Photocatalytic processes on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles do not respond unanimously to the same mechanism. It depends on which kind of organic molecule is being photocatalytically degraded and the surface and bulk properties of the photocatalyst. Since these mechanisms involve the action of electrons and holes photogenerated upon the excitation of the semiconductor with the proper wavelength, they become the focus of many studies which intend to unravel the reasons for the different photocatalytic efficiencies found for different combinations of systems, i.e., different organic molecules and different TiO2 nanoparticulate systems.

In this study we suggest that the electron-hole pairs can play an important role in photocatalysis beyond the red-ox reactions responsible for the degradation of the organic molecules at the surface of the photocatalyst. We have performed infrared spectroscopic studies of a UVA irradiated layer of TiO2 nanoparticles in contact with an aqueous solution free of any photocatalytic degradable compound. The surprising result was that we found that a volume of water is incorporated in the TiO2 layer. We attributed such a phenomenon to a mechanism of deaggregation of some particles agglomerates resulting from the capacity of the system to use the energy released by recombination of an excess of photogenerated electrons and holes. In this mechanism, the bonds responsible for maintaining nanoparticles agglomerated are broken allowing the particles to separate. Thus, water molecules can fill the space in between the previously agglomerated particles.

In this new overall mechanism, photocatalysis extends beyond the oxidation and reduction reactions driven by holes and electrons, respectively, to the promotion of an enhancement of the adsorption capacity of the photocatalyst under UVA illumination by an increase of the exposed surface area. In this sense, the uselessness of the recombined electron-hole pairs is thus reverted to a partially useful thermal contribution to the efficiency of a photocatalytic system in water.

DNA Information Carried by EMS: Experimental Evidence and Medical Applications

Montagnier L1, M.D.
1President of the World Foundation for Aids Research and Prevention, 1 Rue Miollis, 75015 Paris Tel: (331)45684545 Fax:(331)42733745
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In a previous presentation, I had reported the successful transmission of DNA information through emission of electromagnetic signals of low frequency (EMS) and organization of water.

A crucial step was the recognition by the DNA polymerase of PCR, of stable water structures reflecting in some way the DNA sequences.

In order to eliminate any criticism of contamination by physical contacts, we have organized collaboration with several distant laboratories (Germany and Italy). These laboratories have received via Internet the digitized file of the EMS recorded from a specific DNA sequence (HIV and Borrelia). And indeed they were able in several experiments to reproduce the original DNA sequences from water structures induced by the DNA specific EMS.

The theoretical and practical issues raised by these results will be discussed.

Report on VI International Congress: Weak and Super Weak Fields and Radiations in Biology and Medicine, St Petersburg, Russia, July 2-6, 2012

Morré DJ1 and Morré DM1
1Mor-NuCo, LLC, 1291C Cumberland Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47906
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The Morré’s were privileged to have been invited to attend the VI International Congress “Low and Superlow Fields and Radiations in Biology and Medicine” July 2-6, 2012 in Saint Petersburg, Russia organized by Lydia Gall (Chairman) and Andrev Drozdov (Scientific Secretary) and to present our findings on ortho-para spin pair oscillations of water and the basis both for biological time-keeping and coherent populations of water to an audience both critical of and receptive to new paradigms. The topics of water coherence and ortho-para spin isomers were highlighted to the opening sessions of the conference with presentations of Dr. Emilio Del Giudice on “Emergence of quantum coherence in liquid water”, S. M. Pershin “Quantum difference of H2O spin isomers”, Andrev Drozdov “Dynamics of intermolecular interactions in water”, Stanislav Zakharov on “Nuclear spin isomers of H2O molecules as a possible cause for spontaneous compartition of liquid water into time-space clusters” and later on, light-oxygen effects with A. V. Inavov. Approximately half of the subsequent sessions were devoted to biological and medical applications of weak and super weak fields and radiations ranging from adverse effects of mobile phones to human brain rhythms, heart beat rate variability, cardiovascular disease, orthopedics, seed germination, waste water management and homeopathy.

Exclusion zone and coherence domains (EZ – water) were ably presented by V. L. Voeikov and E. Del Giudice as was biological effects of electromagnetic waves by E. E. Fesenko (also R. Sarimov and V. Binhi).

Analyses of water luminescence data in collaboration with the laboratory of Stanislav Zakharov revealed multiple sinusoidal periodicities with period lengths in multiples of 1.2 sec with significant maxima observed at period lengths of 2.4, 3.6, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 sec. Relative contributions of each were summed algebraically to generate a hypothetical carrier wave which was periodic but no longer sinusoidal. Revealed was the characteristic 2 + 3 oscillation pattern with a period length of 18 min with two of the maxima separated by an interval of 6 min. This pattern of oscillations characterizes the oscillatory fluctuations in redox potential underlying the oxidation of NADH associated with the ultradian driver of the cell’s biological clock.

Morré, D.J., Morré, D.M. (2012) Water in biological time keeping. In: Pepper, D.W., Brebbia, C.A., (eds.) Water and Society. WIT Press, Southampton, Boston. pp. 13-23.

For the latter, the concept of water structure having a memory component was of special interest.

Our work was summarized together with new findings demonstrating that water molecules communicate with each other over very long distances via low frequency electromagnetic fields generated by ortho/para spin oscillations of ortho/para spin pairs of water hydrogens.

The Carbonic Acid System: Nature’s Universal Buffer That Does More Than Just Regulating the pH of Water

Pines E1
1Department of Chemistry, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84125, Israel

The bicarbonate/CO2 buffer, is the universal buffer in Nature controlling the pH of Earth oceans as well as the pH of the blood in living organisms. Carbonic acid, an essential part of the CO2/bicarbonate buffer system, had been for many years an elusive chemical species due to its instability in aqueous solutions. The chemical instability of carbonic acid, H2CO3, results in the molecule breaking down into CO2 and H2O, a reaction which is catalyzed by water. Various experiments in the past 10 years have shown that carbonic acid may be isolated intact and that the molecule is stable enough to be considered for its own chemical reactivity. Recently1, using ultrafast mid-IR spectroscopy we have been able to directly measure the IR spectrum of carbonic acid and to evaluate its acid-base properties in aqueous solutions. Our findings open up the discussion of the role of carbonic acid in nature as well as pose a fundamental question: Have we missed a key element in the chemical and biological reactivity of water when interacting with earth atmosphere or when serving as the basic biological fluid?

1. Adamczyk K, Prémont-Schwarz M, Pines D, Pines E and Nibbering ETJ. Real-time observation of carbonic acid formation in aqueous solution, Science, 326 (2009) 1690; published on line: SciencExpress 12/11/09.

The Fourth Phase of Water: Biological Implications

Pollack GH1, PhD
1University of Washington, Seattle
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It has been common knowledge that water has three phases: solid, liquid and vapor. But we have recently uncovered what appears to be a fourth phase. This phase occurs next to hydrophilic surfaces. We refer to it as the “exclusion zone” or EZ. It is surprisingly extensive, projecting out from the surface by up to millions of molecular layers.

Of particular significance is the observation that this fourth phase is charged; and the water just beyond is oppositely charged, creating a battery that can produce current. We found that light recharges this battery. Thus, water can receive and process electromagnetic energy drawn from the environment. The absorbed light energy can then be exploited for performing work, including electrical and mechanical work. Recent experiments confirm the reality of such energy conversion.

The energy-conversion framework implied above seems rich with implication. Not only does it provide an understanding of how water processes solar and other electromagnetic energies, but also it may provide a foundation for simpler understanding many natural phenomena. A preliminary draft of the forthcoming book on this phase of water can be downloaded from the site listed above by clicking on “New Book.”

The presentation will focus mainly on biological implications. I will discuss the role of water, including the fourth phase, on various common biological functions.

On Water Coherence Domain–mediated Interactions Between Biomolecules in the Living Cell

Preoteasa EA1
1National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-077125, Bucharest-Magurele, Romania

The living cell is perhaps the strongest correlated system, and most highly organized, known so far, and the behavior of its composing particles could be described completely only collectively, assuming long range interactions like in the theories of coherent dipole oscillations developed by Fröhlich and by Preparata and Del Giudice. Long-range frequency- dependent, resonant (Askaryan) forces involving coherence domains (CD) in water can bring non-diffusively into contact dipolar specific biomolecules far apart in the cell (~1−10 µm), controlling thus cell metabolism [1]. Making use of the low effective mass (meff = 13.6 eV) of water CDs [1] we evaluated the cell size by various models well supported by cell biology data [2]. The water CDs were approximated either as stable quasiparticles living indefinitely like in non-relativistic QM or as QED virtual particles that exist for a limited time, implying also various CD-CD and CD-biomolecules interactions. The CDs are collective elementary excitations involving the coherent oscillations of water dipoles; they are scalar bosons (S = 0) and Goldstone bosons because they appear by breakdown of rotational symmetry of H2O molecule. It is plausible that “two types of CDs” may occur: a short-lived one, described like a QED virtual particle created and annihilated in the ‘vacuum’ of pure disordered water, and a long-lived one, matching to a QM ‘stable’ (quasi)particle, with a certain shape and size (e.g., R0~15 nm), formed in the cell when the CD is pumped with metabolic (chemical) energy [1]. Here we propose new hypotheses on CD interactions.

1) We assume that between two stable (“real”) CDs or between a CD and a molecule, a potential with the central part of the form U(R) = DR–4 – CR–3 exists; here we postulated a repulsive R–4 term due to a cavity creation by the CD in the dielectric medium of disordered solvent water. At sufficient long distance, U ~ R–3 [3]. The parameter D of the cavity creation potential is proportional to the particle’s surface σ = 4πR02. The equilibrium radius is Re = 4D/3C and acordingly scales with R02. Thus taking C and D so as to have Re = 560 nm for two CDs with R0 = 15 nm, a molecule interacting with a CD should have a minimum radius R0 of ~2.5 nm for not penetrating inside the CD at the equilibrium distance (Re > 15 nm). In the case of hemoglobin (R0 = 3.25 nm), the Hb-CD equilibrium radius Re should be 28 nm. Apparently, the CD could mediate the interactions mainly between macromolecules (e.g., antigen-antibody) and not the interactions of proteins with small molecules.

2) A molecule-CD-molecule system is similar to the H2+ molecular ion, and is made up by two relatively heavy macromolecules (> 44000 Da) and a very light CD (~1.3 10-8 Da) but of large radius (~15 nm). An exchange interaction arises if two CDs are placed between two macromolecules (similarly to H2 molecule), and the energy of the unbound system splits in two sublevels. The picture complicates with 3 or more CD bosons between molecules.

3) A virtual CD in the unstructured water ‘vacuum’ can mediate an exchange force between two molecules interacting specifically, similarly to the virtual Yukawa meson. The action range as given by Ra ≈ ħ/meff c is about 30 – 40 nm and is consistent with a CD as a ~15 nm object. They are much shorter than Askarian forces but much longer as compared to ‘classical’ intermolecular interactions. By analogy of the cell to the atomic nucleus, for a nC density of CDs and a nM density of molecules, the interaction energy for the coupling of the molecules and CD fields is given by H’ = f nC nM. This may account for composition differences between the aqueous cytoplasm of cells in relation to metabolic rates. Thus the inactive spores and seeds are almost dry, in contrast to hydrated cells which are highly active.

4) Biopolymers have strong electric dipoles, which may influence the ‘vacuum’ of unstructured water. Similarly to the theory of pion condensation in the atomic nucleus [4], we take the depth UM of the potential well which harbors the CDs to be proportional to the density nM of molecules, UM = A nM, assuming the molecules’ dipolar fields additive.

When the density of molecules exceeds a critical threshold nM{c), nM > nM{c), where nM{c) = meff c2/A, the water ‘vacuum’ is restructured by a phase transition and the virtual CDs transform in ‘real’, long-lived CDs pumped with metabolic energy from the molecular soup. Thus the onset of the first biologically specific mechanism requires a minimum density of dipolar molecules. Also when nM > nM{c) the CDs form altogether a condensate and the supercoherence takes place in the cell, assumed to control the biochemical reactions. By analogy to the nucleus, the molecules will form a periodic structure, and the reactions will be much accelerated because, just as in heterogeneous catalysis, they will take place on the surfaces of the waves and not in a homogeneous volume. Note that this image relegates to our ionic plasma model of water with density oscillations [5].

Thus the CDs may mediate in many ways long-range intracellular interactions between molecules, covering distances from a few tens of nm to ~10 µm and playing essential roles in basic biological phenomena.

Acknowledgement: I am grateful to Marian Apostol (Bucharest) for valuable suggestions.

1. Del Giudice E, et al, Nuclear Phys B275 (1986) 185-199; Phys Rev Lett 61 (1988) 1085-1088; in Fröhlich H, Kremer F, eds. Coherent Excitations in Biological Systems. Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 123-127 (1983).
2. Preoteasa EA, Apostol MV, Conf. on Phys., Chem. and Biol. of Water, Vermont (2009-2011); arXiv-0812.0275v2-physics-bio-phys-12-Dec-2008; Preoteasa EA, Negoita C, J Phys Conf Ser 329 (2011) 012002
3. Tuszynski JA, in Scott A., ed. Encyclopedia of Nonlinear Science, Taylor & Francis (Routledge), New York – Oxon, UK, 1-3 (2004):
4. Migdal AB, Chernoutsan AI, Mishustin IN, Phys. Lett. B 83 (1979) 158-160; Migdal AB, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn, 44, suppl., 755-759 (1978).
5. Apostol M, Preoteasa E, Phys Chem Liquids 46 (2008) 653 — 668.

10 Reasons Why Alkaline Water from an Ionizer is Anti-Aging, Detoxifying, and Optimal Drinking Water for Your Health

Rubik B1, PhD
1Institute for Frontier Science Mailing address: 6114 LaSalle Ave., PMB 605 Oakland, CA 94611 510-531-5767 (home office); 510-428-4084 (lab)

1. We are composed of 60 to 85% water. Water is essential to life’s many functions. Loss of water is the greatest chemical change with aging. We need to drink more quality water that will rehydrate us.

2. Water from an ionizer is sometimes called “electrolyzed alkaline water” or simply just ionized water. The water is energized by the ionization treatment, which enhances its absorption, bioavailability, solvation properties, removal of wastes, and delivery of nutrients. It is “wetter” than ordinary water, having lower surface tension. It tastes smooth and silky on the tongue, and sweet, like no other water in bottles or from filters. Most people agree that this water tastes like water should taste.

3. As we age, acid production from ordinary metabolism of food poses challenges to our health. Most people become too acidic. At pH 9 or greater, this is among the most alkaline water available, and it neutralizes acid wastes within the body. When our biological terrain is at an optimal pH of 7.45, our blood is better oxygenated, we have more energy, and our brain and other organs function optimally.

4. Ionized water has an oxidative-reductive potential (ORP) of -150 mV to -350 mV, which means that it has strong antioxidant properties in the body. It combats free radicals, which are believed to be one of the major causes of aging. Studies show that it promotes anti-aging in various strains of mice. DNA was protected from oxidative damage. Moreover, mice that drank this water had significantly longer lifespans, from 20 to 50% longer. Further studies show that this water increases the activity of a key detoxifying enzyme, superoxide dysmutase, which fights free radicals in the body.

5. Ionized water retains important minerals, including calcium, magnesium, potassium, and other minerals, from the water from which it is made. However, the chlorine, chloramines, and organic contaminants are removed. Water with alkaline minerals has long been known to be good for human health, and is especially important for cardiovascular health.

6. Agricultural studies show improved fruit, root systems, and biomass of plants watered with electrolyzed alkaline water, plus less plant diseases. So, the water is healthy for plants, too.

7. The strong electric field used in preparing electrolyzed alkaline water erases the “memory” of water, including that of any drugs that may be in city water, such as estrogens from birth control pills, and other drugs, and any herbicides and pesticides that may enter the municipal water supply. 8. Ionized water has an “energetic signature” as shown using the Gas Discharge Visualization (GDV) camera that is comparable to that of pristine mountain streams, such as the water in the Sierras.

9. You can make your own ionized water by purchasing an easy-to-use, self-maintaining, home countertop unit that connects to your faucet and can be bypassed for washing dishes. Some ionizers can be plumbed under the sink. The flow rate is about 1 gallon/min. It tastes like the best natural springs.

10. Ionized water made in this way is an ecological alternative to purchasing bottled water in plastic bottles. These bottles leach plasticizers including phthalates into the water, which may cause cancer, and some have hormonal activity. Moreover, bottled water is ecologically unsustainable. Making your own drinking water is healthier for the biosphere as well as for you.

Our studies on water were made with Ionways ionizers, which support these facts listed above. See to view products or read more. Please contact me for further information or to purchase a device—we offer great discounts over web prices. © Beverly Rubik, 2012

Water Images: Revealing the Fourth Phase of Water?

Schroecker G1
1Member of Schauberger Foundation Salzburg, Austria
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My field of interest is focused on nature in general and especially on the processes which can be observed when water is analyzed by using a dark field microscope.

The water drop is placed on the microscope slide, the water evaporates with time and residues remain. By using the microscope, crystallization images can be observed. Depending on the geological origin of the water samples the images differ in shape as well as color. I analyzed samples of tap water, spring water, mountain spring water and dew drops and the results are presented at the conference. My intention is to explore water from a different point of view.

How Can We Eliminate Radiation from Radioactive Materials?

Sugihara S1
1Research Institute of Engineering, Kanagawa University, Yokohama, Japan
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There is an urgent need to eliminate radioactive contamination arising from the Fukushima nuclear disaster on March 11, 2011. Methods for stabilizing radioactive materials are generally believed to require high energy levels, such as those that occur during nuclear fusion and also they only use popular absorbent for the nuclear materials. We, however, report progressive ideas and experimental data in 6 month period for deactivating radionuclides, independently of their half-lives. The theoretical approaches are consisted of two ideas; (1) the interaction between photons from the caesium(Cs) and the particle of (what we call the Infoton) can perform around the geometrical potential formed by them at very short distance and for very short time. In this scheme the Infotons that emit a long-wavelength (such as approx. 1 mm or THz) can resonate with the photon energies from Cs. (2) We apply one of group theories to the Infotons, and show that stable elements such as barium(Ba), lanthanum(La), and cerium(Ce) should be generated from the radioactive elements (Cs in our case). The Infoton can be generated by the specially-treated water through a process. We experimentally confirmed reduction of radioactivity using the water or the container activated with the water involving the Infoton. We showed that the contaminated soils produced a 60% decrease in radioactivity after 42 hours. This reduction has persisted during 6 months, after which the level of radioactivity was 13% of its original value, for instances. Furthermore, the presence of these elements (Ba, La, and Ce) in the treated soils or their extracts was indeed demonstrated experimentally by induction-coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (and also ICP-AES ) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. We name this process of reduction for radioactivity a long-wavelength synthesis (LOWS), in other words, a low-energy method.

Spectral Analysis of Masses of Water in Radio Frequency Range (Study of the Chemical Polarization of Water)

Takarada M1
1Retired Electrical Engineer, 6-5-18 Takaoka, Okubo, Akashi City 674 0057, Japan
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Spectral analysis of masses of water in the radio frequency (RF) range quantitatively verified that flowing water is chemically polarized, after it passes through static electric and magnetic fields. From this fact, I inferred that an electric current must also be chemically polarized if the current flowing through an electric wire has passed through static electric and magnetic fields. Spectral analysis of water, which had been illuminated with light sources such as LEDs and light bulbs being fed with the electric current, verified its chemical polarization. Here, I present my experiments which were conducted mainly with tap water containing solutes. These solutes help water form masses or groups consisting of millions to half a billion water molecules, which are tuned to a natural rhythm in the RF range. Such rhythmic water mass behaviors have received little attention from water scientists, and I believe that the chemical polarization of water I have observed must be connected to these mass behaviors. I could further study these behaviors with the help of a unique spectroscope (Aqua Analyzer, Toshiki Nakashima). The spectroscope uses an RF range of 500-4000 kHz. It is far lower than that used in ordinary spectroscopes for the spectral analysis of water. This low frequency range allows us to study the behaviors of masses or groups of water molecules.

Takarada Figure 1: The processing of water with the static electric and magnetic field devices. Red profile shows the spectrum of right-handed processed water: Green profile shows the spectrum of left-handed processed water: Blue profile shows the spectrum of the control (unprocessed) water. Red profile shows more and wider peaks, indicating that the water is activated and contains activated solutes in it.

Takarada Figure 1: The processing of water with the static electric and magnetic field devices. Red profile shows the spectrum of right-handed processed water: Green profile shows the spectrum of left-handed processed water: Blue profile shows the spectrum of the control (unprocessed) water. Red profile shows more and wider peaks, indicating that the water is activated and contains activated solutes in it.

The Aqua Analyzer verified that water and electric current are oppositely polarized according to the handedness of the three vectors involved-electric field, magnetic field and water flow or current flow. Here, I first assume the vector rotation (vector product) of the electric field to the magnetic field, and then orient the direction of the product vector along that of the flow vector. If the rotation is left, the flow vector is left handed: conversely if the rotation is right, it is right handed. However, the effects of handedness on water and current are significantly affected by the magnetic properties of the materials used in the experimental device. From the experiments, I concluded that all of the device materials must have the same magnetic properties-either paramagnetic or diamagnetic. The homogeneity in magnetic properties gives rise to clear differences in the RF range absorption spectra among waters processed directly by the device and those illuminated with the lights from the sources receiving the chemically polarized currents.

Why can electric current be chemically polarized with static electric and magnetic fields? This is because current flows in a manner similar to electromagnetic waves along the conductor-air interface. Near total of the electric power applied to the terminals is carried to the load by electromagnetic waves, while only a fraction of the power applied is carried by diffusing electrons. This fraction is converted into heat caused by the collision of diffusing electrons. The existence of chemically polarized currents is proved by spectral analysis of masses of the water that are illuminated with light from the sources receiving the currents. Chemical polarization of the current has an advantage over direct chemical polarization of light with a static electric and magnetic field device, because the latter is sometimes practically impossible to set up in front of a light source.

Aquaphotomics: Water Spectral Pattern as a Biomarker for Diagnosis

Tsenkova R1
1Bio Measurement Technology Laboratory, Kobe University, Japan
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Aquaphotomics discovers and uses data base of specific water absorbance bands of the electromagnetic spectrum, which work as “hubs” for harvesting bio information on a system level. In our previous studies, it has been proved that water becomes a “mirror” on molecular level when illuminated with near infrared light. When light penetrates through the water it interacts with all the molecules of the bio system. As the water hydrogen bond network is highly influenced by the solutes, the obtained water absorbance spectral pattern mirrors all molecular vibrations. Therefore it communicates enormous information about the whole bio system.

Accurate bio diagnosis requires multitude of factors (symptoms) screened non- invasively and in real time. The present study will demonstrate how near infrared spectral data of various bio systems (water, DNA, cells, bacteria, plants and animals) facilitate this process. Furthermore, multivariate spectral analysis has been applied for information extraction. Specific water bands, “hubs”, were discovered and used for accurate bio diagnosis of different stages and conditions of each system.

These findings proved that water is a common denominator in each bio system. When analyzed and monitored non-invasively with near infrared light, it becomes a powerful and highly efficient “hub network” for bio diagnosis.

Key words: bio system, near infrared spectroscopy, multivariate analysis, non-invasive diagnosis.

Tsenkova, R. (2009) Introduction Aquaphotomics: dynamicspectroscopy of aqueous and biological systems describes peculiarities of water. J. Near Infrared Spectrosc. 17, 303-313.

Laboratory Evidence of Fractal and Coherent Structures in Water: Experimental Results and Theoretical Understanding

Vitiello G1
1Department of Physics, University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy and INFN, Salerno, Italy
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I present a theoretical analysis of some measurements made by Vittorio Elia and his group in Naples on water in the presence of nafion, which exhibit fractal self-similar properties. By resorting to the theorem by which fractal self-similar properties may be described in terms of squeezed coherent states, it is argued that fractal self- similarity of the data obtained in the Elia’s group measurements signals the presence of squeezed coherent structures in the molecular organization of water.

On the Relationship Between Exclusion Zones and Coherence Domains in Water

Voeikov VL1 and Del Giudice E2
1Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Biology, Moscow, Russia
1Retired Physicist, Via Friuli, 21, 20135 Milano, Italy
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A certain part of water in any aqueous system is represented by water adjacent to hydrophilic surfaces. The thickness of layers of this water may reach hundreds of microns. Inasmuch as different solutes are excluded from this aqueous phase it was termed exclusion zone water (EZ-water). Due to its peculiar properties EZ-water may be considered as a new allotropic form of water dynamically different from bulk liquid water [1]. One of the most mysterious properties of EZ- water is that water formed near a surface bearing a net negative charge is negatively charged and it is positively charged near a surface bearing a net positive charge. The higher is the density of fixed charges on the solid surface the higher is the thickness of EZ-water [2]. This property of the system – electrically charged surface|charged EZ-water} contradicts the general law of electricity stating that the charges of the same sign should repel, while opposite charges should attract each other. Here we suggest an argument allowing our opinion to resolve this paradox.

Any charged surface (ion-exchange resins, nucleic acids, proteins, etc.) represents a polymeric or crystalline backbone to which chemical residues bearing negative or positive (or both) charges are covalently bound. Like charges repel each other, but as they are fixed to a matrix and as each charged residue is surrounded by other charges they all have to vibrate. Their collective vibration should become coherent due to the principle of minimization of energy. Vibration of charges produces an electromagnetic field (EMF) propagating to space surrounding the charged surface. Is there any entity in bulk water that may interact with this EMF? As it follows from the application of Quantum Electrodynamic (QED) theory to liquid water the latter is a two phase system [3]. One of the phases represents ensembles of water molecules, named coherence domains (CDs), oscillating in phase between the ground state and electron excited state. From another perspective a CD may be characterized as an extended mesoscopic space region where all molecules oscillate in tune with a self-trapped EMF. At “normal” temperature and pressure a substantial part of water molecules loses coherence, and CDs turn out to be “suspended” in non-coherent water. It follows from QED theory that the electron excited state involved in the coherent oscillations of water (12,06 eV) corresponds to a CD size of 0.1 microns implying that some 6 million water molecules participate in coherent oscillations. The surface of CD is enriched with quasi-free electrons (energy of ionization of water molecules is 12,6 eV). Thus aqueous CDs represent sources of coherent oscillatory EMFs. If the coherent EMF of the charged surface contacting with water gets into resonance with the coherent CD, the latter will be attracted by the charged surface. As an oscillating CD is approaching the oscillating charged surface the amplitude of the oscillations of a CD is increasing. When the surface is charged negatively, and the EMF produced by it resonates with EMF produced by oscillations of electrons of a CD, protons of water molecules that cannot oscillate with the same frequencies as electrons are ejected from the CD. When this happens, CD water converts into EZ-water. If the surface carries fixed negative charges CD converts into negatively charged EZ-water. The degree of coherence of oscillations of non-compensated electrons of EZ-water fixed to quasi- polymeric aqueous matrix is highest for layers of EZ-water closest to the oscillating charged surface. Accordingly the negative charge density of the layers of water decreases with the increase of their distance from the charged surface. Overall charge density (electrical potential of EZ-water) and the thickness of EZ-water layer depend upon charge density of fixed charges of the polymeric surface. This scenario explains why a negatively charged surface is covered with negatively charged water: an oscillatory EMF generated by the surface resonates with the oscillatory EMF of CD, the resonance overcomes electrostatic repulsion of like charges since charges oscillating in unison keep together.

In the case of positively charged surfaces immersed in water (for example, a polymer to which tertiary amines are covalently bound) oscillating species are protons (nuclei). The mass of a proton is about 2000-fold larger than that of an electron, so the frequency range of positive charges oscillations should lie in a completely different range than the range characteristic for electron (negative charges) oscillations. Thus the parameters (frequencies) of the coherent EMF generated by the positively charged surface are quite different from those characteristic for the negatively charged surface. This coherent EMF will attract the nearby CDs due to the resonance with quasi-free protons of CDs. When CDs approach the surface generating EMF due to oscillations of fixed positive charges quasi-free electrons are ejected from coherently oscillating water (probably in a form of HO─ ions) and an oscillating lattice of positively charged quasi- polymeric water stay attached to the vibrating surface.

The concept of the origination of EZ-water described above agrees with all its known properties; it allows explaining why EZ-water forming near a charged surface should have the same sign of charge as the sign of the surface. It follows from this concept that the presence of CDs in liquid water that follows from the application of QED theory to water is the necessary and sufficient condition for the emergence of EZ-water adjacent to surfaces carrying multiple fixed charges when particles with such surfaces contact liquid water.

1. Pollack G.H. and associates, 2003-2012.
2. Zheng JM, Wexler A, Pollack GH. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2009, v. 332, p. 511.
3. Arani, R., et al. Int. J. Mod. Phys. B. 1995, v. 9, p. 1813.

A New Perspective of Protein Hydration & Solvent Slaving from Solution NMR

Wand AJ1
1Department of Biochemistry & Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6059, United States
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The interactions of proteins with water are fundamental to their structure, dynamics and function. Historically, characterization of the location and residence times of hydration waters of proteins in solution has been difficult. Confinement within the nanoscale interior of a reverse micelle allows detection of protein-water interactions using solution NMR techniques. Complications that normally arise from short residence times, hydrogen exchange and long-range dipolar coupling are overcome by the nature of the reverse micelle sample. Characterization of ubiquitin demonstrates that encapsulation within a reverse micelle allows detection of dozens of hydration waters. Comparison of NOE and ROE intensities indicate a considerable range of hydration water dynamics on the protein surface. A clustering of different hydration dynamics is evident. These clusters also correlate with the surface that is involved in protein-protein interactions suggesting that evolution has maximized the hydrophobic effect (i.e. entropy gain of water). Similar studies of other proteins will also be presented. In addition, the coupling of the motion of water at the surface and in the bulk has long been thought to “slave” the motions of the protein. Site-resolved measurement of this has been lacking. Here we show that the confinement of ubiquitin within the high-viscosity water core of a reverse micelle affects internal protein motion in only small and subtle ways. This may require a revision of the “solvent slaving” model for protein motion. Supported by the NIH and the NSF.


J De Poster
Frias Poster
Gang and Pollack
Hansmann Poster
Jerman et al Poster
Muncan Poster
Wand Poster

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