Homeopathic Drugs Modify Water Structure in Ethanol Water Solution in Their Extreme Dilutions as Revealed by Electronic and Vibrational Spectroscopy
Singh R K1, 2, Ghosh S2, Sukul N C* 2, 3, Pande N2, 4, Sukul A2, Nandi M5, Pal A5, Pal M5
1Department of Botany, Government General Degree College, Mangalkote, Panchanantala, Khudri Dighi, East Burdwan, West Bengal, India.
2Sukul Institute of Homeopathic Research, Santiniketan, West Bengal, India.
3Department of Zoology, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan, West Bengal, India.
4Department of Geography, Panihati Mahavidyalaya, Sodepur, Kolkata, India
5Integrated Science Education and Research Centre, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan, West Bengal, India
*E-mail for correspondence: email@example.com, htpps://orcid.org/0000-0001-5888-3369
Dr. Raj Kumar Singh Ph.D., Email. ID: firstname.lastname@example.org, htpps://orcid.org/0000-0002-9787-6177
Sumit Ghosh M.Sc., Email. ID: email@example.com, htpps://orcid.org/0000-0002-3766-9344
Prof. Nirmal Chandra Sukul Ph.D., Email.ID: firstname.lastname@example.org, htpps://orcid.org/0000-0001-5888-3369
Dr. Nivedita Pande Ph.D Email ID: email@example.com
Dr. Anirban Sukul Ph.D Email ID: firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr. Mahasweta Nandi Ph,D., Email. ID: email@example.com, htpps://orcid.org/0000-0002-3114-4774
Ananya Pal M.Sc., Email. ID: firstname.lastname@example.org, htpps://orcid.org/0000-0002-2761-2600
Manjula Pal M.Sc., Email. ID: email@example.com, htpps://orcid.org/0000-0001-9756-3762
Keywords: High dilutions, Hydrogen bonding strength, Free water molecules, Electronic spectra, Vibrational spectra.
Received: July 28, 2021
Revised: October 4, 2021
Accepted: November 15, 2021
Published: April 25, 2022
High dilutions (HD) of drugs used in homeopathy are too dilute to contain original drug molecules. Clinical and experimental evidence shows, however, that the HDs produce specific biological effects. Water structures in HDs are thought to be responsible for those effects. In our earlier experimental studies, we defined the water structure in terms of free water molecules (FWM) and the hydrogen bond strength (HBS) of the water hydroxyl in the aqueous ethanol solvent medium of HDs. The objective of this preliminary study is to further confirm the components of water structure by electronic (ES) and vibrational spectroscopy (VS). HDs, prepared by serial dilution of a drug followed by succussion, are called potencies. Three common homeopathic drugs, Bryonia alba, Rhus toxicodendron and Thuja occidentalis, and three potencies of each drug were analyzed by ES and VS using appropriate statistics. The results show that the potencies tested differ from each other with respect to FWM and HBS of the water hydroxyl. We conclude that the drugs could modify the water structure in an EtOH water solution, and this modification would continue to exist in HDs beyond the Avogadro number. Original drug molecules influence the HBS in the HDs.
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