High Dilutions

Effects of Highly Diluted Substances on Aquatic Animals: A Review

Nagai MYO1, Von Ancken ACB1, Bonamin LV1 *

1] Graduate Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology – Universidade Paulista (UNIP). Rua Dr. Bacelar, 1212 – 4th floor. ZIP-CODE: 04026-002 – São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Authors’ emails: Nagai MYO (mynagai@yahoo.com.br), Von Ancken ACB (acbvonancken@hotmail.com), Bonamin LV * (leoni.bonamin@docente.unip.br;  leonibonamin@gmail.com).

Keywords: homeopathy, solvatochromic dyes, fish, bivalve, crustacean, amphibian.

• Received: November 3, 2021
• Revised: February 1, 2022
• Accepted: March 3, 2022
• Published: April 25, 2022




Recent studies on the use of highly diluted substances to treat aquatic animals have been raised in literature. These studies are mainly focused on experimental tools to elucidate the mechanisms of high dilutions’ actions on living beings, and that reveal the potential use of these products as a clean and cheap technology to improve animal health. Endler and colleagues carried out the most reproducible experimental model in this field more than 20 years ago – that is, the effects of highly diluted thyroxine on tadpole development, whose papers were published between 1994 and 2015. More recently, certain species of aquatic animals – such as zebrafish and microcrustaceans – have been used as experimental models to evaluate toxicity and bioresilience. Concerning microcrustaceans, a series of studies using Artemia salina have shown interesting results in inducing adaptative processes to hazardous substances. At least partially, these effects seem to be associated with changes in the electric properties of water, as seen by its interaction with solvatochromic dyes.

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