High Dilutions

Non-Monotonous Impedance Patterns of Diclofenac Centesimal Potentiated Solutions and Their Evolution-Summary

Lobyshev VI 

Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991 Moscow, Russia

Keywords: ultrahigh dilutions; water; diclofenac; permittivity; resistivity; active oxygen forms

• Received: November 8, 2021
• Revised: January 22, 2022
• Accepted: February 16, 2022
• Published: April 25, 2022




The impedance of heavily diluted diclofenac centesimal potentiated solutions in the range of 20 Hz – 10 MHz was studied. Each dilution was accompanied by vigorous shaking. The whole set of samples consisted of 33 iteration steps. Two parallel sets were prepared.  There was no permittivity increment in the samples, which indicates the absence of mesoparticles with high dipole moment. At the same time, the resistance of the samples presented a non-monotonic character, including ultra-high dilution samples, in which the concept of diclofenac concentration does not make sense. The pattern of both sets of samples turned out to be well correlated. The evolution of the resistivity patterns consisted of a decrease of the average value with a significant preservation of the shape of the pattern up to 30 days. This means that the result does not depend on the concentration of the solute, but on the sample preparation procedure. A hypothetical explanation of the observed effects consists in the appearance of reactive oxygen and nitrogen forms during mechanical perturbation of solution and the products of subsequent complex chemical reactions.

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