Imaging Cancer and Healthy Cell Sounds in Water by Cymascope, Followed by Quantitative Analysis by Planck-Shannon Classifier
John S. Reid1, Beum Jun Park2, and Sungchul Ji3
1Sonic Age, Ltd., St. John’s-in-the-Vale, Cumbria, England; 2Pharm D/MD candidate, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy and The Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, N.J; and 3Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, N.J.
Keywords: Cymascope instrument, Cymascopic, Faraday Waves, Hydrodynamics, Planck-Shannon Classifier, Planckian Distribution Equation, Planckian information of the second kind, Shannon entropy, Raman Spectroscopy, sonified Raman spectral features of cancer cells and healthy cells, tumorectomy.
Submitted: September 30, 2019; Revised: November 6, 2019; Accepted: December 3, 2019; Published: December 24, 2019; Available Online: December 24, 2019.
In controlled conditions water can be used as a means of transforming sonic periodicities to water wavelet periodicities, a process that results in the production of Faraday Wave images. The present study uses a Cymascope instrument to render visible the sonic periodicities emitted by cancer cells and healthy cells in human brain tissues, in medical grade water, a step toward developing a real-time surgical procedure support in which the margins of cancerous tissue may be clearly identified for the surgeon during tumor removal. Sound files generated from sonified Raman spectroscopy signals of cancer tissue and healthy tissue are injected into the Cymascope instrument’s fused-quartz, water-filled cuvette. The resulting imagery is captured by digital camera and quantitatively analyzed using a generalized form of the Planck radiation formula, termed Planckian Distribution Equation (PDE). PDE has been found to fit many long-tailed asymmetric histograms (LAH) reported in fields as diverse as atomic physics, protein folding, single-molecule enzymology and in many other fields. The apparent universality of PDE is postulated to be due to the principle of wave-particle duality embedded in PDE that applies not only to quantum mechanics but also to macrophysics. The new classification method referred to as the Planck-Shannon Classifier, which is formulated based on PDE is shown to successfully distinguish between the Faraday Wave images from cancer cell and healthy cell sounds.