Liquids Prepared by Serially Diluting and Vigorously Shaking of Aqueous Solutions: Unveiling Effects of the Solute on their Properties
1K. Kalia, D.N. Kikar Jordan 90666, Israel
2Reedmace Lake, Enot Tsukim Nature Reserve at Kalia, Israel.
Correspondence Email: email@example.com
Keywords: Very dilute aqueous solutions; serially diluted solutions; water molecule associates; water; nano-associates; quantum electrodynamic domains; Hall effect.
Received: November 1, 2018; Revised: August 12, 2019; Accepted:September 3, 2019; Published: January 14, 2020; Available Online: January 14, 2020.
Altering the bioactivity of aqueous solutions via serial dilutions is important for toxicology, medicine and wastewater treatment. Extensive research has shown that serially diluting aqueous solutions beyond a threshold concentration, combined with vigorous shaking after each dilution step, has several notable effects. (a) The solutes may serve as substrates, which facilitate association of water molecules (10-5 and 10-7 m sized associates). (b) The associates and the bioactivity of these liquids persist when these fluids are diluted below 10-24 mol/liter. (c) The associates and the bioactivity of these liquids disappear when such ultra-diluted fluids are screened from ambient electromagnetic radiation. (d) The structural and physicochemical properties of these liquids are explainable within the context of quantum electrodynamics (QED). Hitherto, relations between the physicochemical properties of these liquids and their substrates have not been unveiled. There are no reports of statistically significant data that reflect physicochemical aspects of these liquids attributable to specific characteristics of substrates. Moreover, the aforementioned relations have not been theoretically derived. In this study, the relations are analyzed within the context of QED. The analyses have helped elucidate the challenge of observing the impact of the substrate on the associates. The analyses also indicate that measuring the quantum Hall effect of these liquids holds the promise of unveiling the aforementioned relations.