The Case for Symbiotic Photovoltaic Effects in the Growth of Tetrahedral Oxy-subhydride (TOSH) Structures and their Function in the Biological Exclusion Zones of Anchored Polar Solvents Including Water – Part II

Oehr KH1, LeMay PH2

1. Electro-chemical engineer and principal of Hazelmere Research, Surrey, British Columbia, Canada; E-Mail: (K.O.)

2. Independent science writer, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; E-Mail: (P.L.)

* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed:;

Tel.: +1-604-541-0589; Fax: +1-604-541-0109.

Received:  January 17, 2017;  Accepted: August 24, 2017; Published: December 22, 2017;
Available Online: December 22, 2017.

DOI: 10.14294/WATER.2017.5



In Part I, five pre-existing sets of empirical data were used to propose the existence of a three dimensional geometry of negatively-charged tetra-oxysubhydride (TOSH) structures within the exclusion zones (EZs) of  hydroxyl functional group anchored water, such as melting ice, rabbit muscle protein and polar solvent derived EZs adjacent to Nafion®. In the current paper we propose that TOSH-loaded EZs play a critical role in at least three key significant biological areas: a) guarding complex bio-molecules, such as DNA, RNA, cytochrome c oxidase, NADPH and proteins in water, from ultraviolet and oxygen-induced free radical damage; b) regenerating oxidized protein SH functional groups (e.g. membrane proteins); and c) in regenerating glutathione from glutathione disulphide. The absorbance of photonic energy is directly involved in generating and regenerating EZs, TOSH and the copper portions of cytochrome c oxidase. TOSH can prevent premature decay of cytochrome c oxidase which suggests a previously unknown symbiotic relationship between these two systems, given that cytochrome c oxidase deficiencies are implicated in improper glucose metabolism, membrane protein malfunction and the subsequent propagation of dementia including Alzheimer’s disease.

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