The Case for Symbiotic Photovoltaic Effects in the Growth of Tetrahedral Oxy-subhydride (TOSH) Structures and their Function in the Biological Exclusion Zones of Anchored Polar Solvents Including Water – Part II
Oehr KH1, LeMay PH2
1. Electro-chemical engineer and principal of Hazelmere Research, Surrey, British Columbia, Canada; E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org (K.O.)
2. Independent science writer, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; E-Mail: PHL222@telus.net (P.L.)
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed: email@example.com;
Tel.: +1-604-541-0589; Fax: +1-604-541-0109.
Received: January 17, 2017; Accepted: August 24, 2017; Published: December 22, 2017;
Available Online: December 22, 2017.
In Part I, five pre-existing sets of empirical data were used to propose the existence of a three dimensional geometry of negatively-charged tetra-oxysubhydride (TOSH) structures within the exclusion zones (EZs) of hydroxyl functional group anchored water, such as melting ice, rabbit muscle protein and polar solvent derived EZs adjacent to Nafion®. In the current paper we propose that TOSH-loaded EZs play a critical role in at least three key significant biological areas: a) guarding complex bio-molecules, such as DNA, RNA, cytochrome c oxidase, NADPH and proteins in water, from ultraviolet and oxygen-induced free radical damage; b) regenerating oxidized protein SH functional groups (e.g. membrane proteins); and c) in regenerating glutathione from glutathione disulphide. The absorbance of photonic energy is directly involved in generating and regenerating EZs, TOSH and the copper portions of cytochrome c oxidase. TOSH can prevent premature decay of cytochrome c oxidase which suggests a previously unknown symbiotic relationship between these two systems, given that cytochrome c oxidase deficiencies are implicated in improper glucose metabolism, membrane protein malfunction and the subsequent propagation of dementia including Alzheimer’s disease.