Large Supramolecular Water Clusters Caught on Camera – A Review

Ho M-W1*

1Institute of Science in Society, 29 Tytherton Road, London N19 4PZ, UK  

*Correspondence E-mail:

Key Words: Stable water clusters, Supramolecular clusters, Quantum coherent domains

Received September 9th, 2013; Revised Dec 16th, 2013; Accepted Dec 20th, 2013; Published January 20th, 2014; Available online January 26th, 2014

doi: 10.14294/WATER.2013.12



This article reviews recent reports on large water clusters containing millions to billions of water molecules directly imaged under the transmission electron microscope and atomic force microscope, which are created by repeated dilution of aqueous solutions of polar solutes and also apparently by other means, and offers an explanation of the structures based on special spherical dipoles originating from quantum coherent domains predicted from quantum electrodynamics theory.

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