The Manipulation of Water with Non-Ablation Radiofrequency Energy: A Repetitive Molecular Energy Conversion Loop under Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Forces
McRury ID1, Morgan RE1, Augé II WK1,*
1Department of Research and Development, NuOrtho Surgical, Inc. at the Advanced Technology & Manufacturing Center, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, Fall River, MA 02723
*Correspondence: Tel: 617-848-8999; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org;
Key Words: radiofrequency, non-ablation, water splitting, arthroscopy, fuel cell
Received 14 June 2010; accepted 10 November; Published 27 November 2010; available online 27 November 2010
The effects produced by surgical devices that deploy an electrical circuit between electrodes are dependent on the nature of electrical work performed upon the conductive media in and around biologic tissues. Because this conductive media is water-based, this study characterizes the effects that non-ablation radiofrequency energy exerts upon saline interfacing media typically encountered during surgical applications. Non-ablation radiofrequency surgical devices were deployed in a bulk 0.9% sodium chloride solution at 300 mOsm/L at 20oC. During energy delivery, temperature and pH changes; gaseous species production, gas condensation behavior, and gas generation dynamics; and ionized charged particle generation were measured in the region of a constrained primary reaction zone surrounding an active electrode. Saline temperature change demonstrated three functional domains commensurate with a decrease in pH at steady-state at the constrained primary reaction zone without changes to the bulk fluid. Gas chromatography, thermal conductivity detector, and flame ionization detection evaluations measured a uniform 2:1 ratio of hydrogen and oxygen comingled non-condensable gas production indicative of split water without heat transfer or gas generation dynamics of water vapor. The presence of ionized charged particles was not detected. These results allowed formulation of a stoichiometric model depicting a repetitive molecular energy conversion loop from water under non-ionizing electromagnetic forces. Non-ablation radiofrequency applications utilize the energy from the molecular bonds of interfacing media water to perform surgical work without delivering ionizing electromagnetic radiation.